Identification of molecular subtypes in medulloblastoma.
A. Unsupervised two-way hierarchical cluster analysis of 62 medulloblastoma samples and expression data of 1300 most differentially expressed genes identified 5 distinct clusters indicated as A, B, C, D, and E. Clinical annotations are at the bottom. Histology: grey = desmoplastic, orange = large cell/anaplastic, white = classic; sex: pink = female, white = male; Metastatic disease at diagnosis indicated with M stage: yellow = M1, orange = ≥M2, white = M0; Age: purple = age ≤3 yrs, white = age >3 yrs; β-catenin mutations: brown = mutations, white = wild type; PTCH1 mutations: blue = mutations, white = wild type. A cross means not analyzed. B. Schematic pentagram showing the correlations between the 5 molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma. Numbers at the outside near each subtype indicate number of genes that are significantly differently expressed between that subtype and all other subtypes (P<0.001). Numbers at connecting lines indicate number of genes that are significantly differently expressed between medulloblastoma subtypes.