Icariin and its bioactive form icariside II extend lifespan in C. elegans.
Figures are generally photos, graphs and static images that would be represented in traditional pdf publications.
A. Chemical structures of icariin and its derivatives. The common structure is 8-prenylkaempferol. R1 and R2 are substituted by rhamnose (rha) or glucose. Removal of R1 (Rha) results in icariside I, while removal of R2 results in icariside II. Removal of both R1 and R2 results in icaritin. B. Survival curves of N2 hermaphrodites treated with DMSO control or icariin (15, 45 and 75 µM) from day 1 adulthood to death at 25°C. Maximum increase in lifespan was observed at 45 uM. C. Survival curves of N2 treated with DMSO control or icariside II (10, 20 and 40 µM). Maximum increase in lifespan was observed at 20 µM. D. Optimum dosage-response analysis of icariin (45 µM) and icariside II (20 µM). Icariside II treatment induces the similar extension with relatively lower dosage compared to icariin. E. HPLC profiles of icariin and icariside II in N2 treated with 45 µM icariin for 4 days initiated from day 1 in adulthood. HPLC detects high level of icariside II in vivo. Small figures (insert) are HPLC profiles of standard samples of icariin and icariside II. All the data above came from 1 representative experiment. For lifespan assay, the treatments were started at day 1 in adulthood continuing to death. Statistical detail and repetitions of the experiments were summarized in Table S1.