Fludarabine blocks HIV-1-induced STAT1 activation and gene expression of IRF-1, IRF-7, and TRAIL in macrophages.
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A. MDM were treated with fludarabine at 1 µM 3 days after infection. P-STAT1 and total STAT1 were detected by Western blotting at 5 days after infection. β-actin was used as a loading control. B–D. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect TRAIL (B), IRF-1 (C), and IRF-7 (D). **, p<0.05 compared with DMSO control. ##; p<0.01 compared to DMSO-treated HIV-1 group.