Exogenous NE induced collagen expression through TGF-β.
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a) NE upwards of 10nM significantly increased hHSC collagen-1a2 gene expression, with absence of serum and TGF-β as negative and positive controls. b) NE significantly induced expression TGF-β. Results (mean ±SEM of triplicate responses in one typical experiment) are expressed as a percentage of the response in serum free control wells, vs SF, *p<0.05. Similar results have been obtained on at least three other occasions.