Energetic costs paid by Iporangaia caring males.
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Effect of caring period on the mean (A) and the variance (B) of males' body volume controlled by structural body size, i.e., dorsal scute length (DSL). Effect of parental state on the mean (C) and the variance (D) of males' weight controlled by body size, i.e., body volume (V). Filled circles and solid lines represent the predicted values for non-caring males, and open circles and dashed lines represent predicted values for caring males.