Effects of BCAA supplementation on apoptosis in rats after 16 weeks of DEN administration.

The relative band intensities of the apoptosis inhibitor markers are shown in the right-hand panels (A). The mRNA expression levels of Mcl-1 and cIAP-1 were determined by RT-PCR (B). The expression levels of p-β-catenin, p-p38 MAPK, PCNA, and caspase-3 protein were determined by Western blotting (C). The expression level of each gene is normalized to those of GAPDH (A and B) and β-actin (C). The lanes contain mRNA (A) and protein (C) samples from three rats per group. Values shown are means ± standard deviation. *P<0.05; **P<0.005; ***P<0.0005.