Effect of formaldehyde exposure on oxidative status in human trophoblasts.
(A) The mRNA expression of OXSR1, catalase, GPx-3, GSR, SOD1 and SOD2 in trophoblasts with or without (control) formaldehyde exposure for 24 h. The mRNA data are expressed as the level of each mRNA marker normalized by actin beta mRNA expression (ACTB). (B) Immunoblot analysis of OXSR1, catalase, GPx-3, SOD1, SOD2, GSR and actin levels in cells with or without formaldehyde exposure during trophoblast differentiation (upper left panel). Levels of the proteins listed above were assessed by densitometric scanning of immunoblots and normalized to actin levels in the same blots (histograms; a.u. for arbitrary units). (C) Catalase, GPx and SOD activity in trophoblasts with or without formaldehyde exposure after 24 h or 72 h of culture. Results are expressed as the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments (** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001).