Changes in patients’ costs.
The stack plots represent the average monthly data of costs for inpatients (A) and outpatients (B) during the preparation, intervention, and assessment periods. The costs are summarized as the costs on hospital stay (TO), medication (ME), antibiotics (AN), and very-restricted antibiotics (VR). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted by comparing the average yearly data on patents’ costs on hospital stay, medication, antibiotics, and very-restricted antibiotics (Very-Restricted) for both inpatients (C—F) and outpatients (G—I). P: preparation; I: intervention; A: assessment; *significant difference in intervention/assessment vs. preparation; #significant difference in assessment vs. intervention.