Basal metabolic rate (BMR) during active and inactive VNS in relation to BAT activity.
A. Individual responses upon VNS intervention. Notice all but one (marked line) subjects decreased energy expenditure upon deactivation of the VNS (subject that increased energy expenditure also described in Results section). B. Mean group BMR upon VNS intervention. C. The change in energy expenditure (Δ Energy Expenditure) upon VNS intervention (On/Off) correlated to the change in BAT activity. One subject (open dot) showed a high increase in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention. This subject was confirmed as an statistical outlier in the exponential growth equation shown and therefore excluded from the equation. Values shown are means + S.E.M. Significance shown for paired t-test in VNS intervention group consisting of 4 males and six females. * P<0.05