Antimicrobial effects byι-carrageenan on infection by native HPV particles.
Infections of HaCaT cells were performed with A) HPV16, B) HPV18, C)HPV31, and D) HPV45 at an MOI of 10 for all virus types as well as an MOI of 100 and 1000 for HPV18. Virus was incubated with ι-carrageenan at increasing concentrations (0 µg/ml, 1 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml, and 100 µg/ml) at 37°C for 30 min prior to and during infection. Infections were analyzed by RT-qPCR measuring the relative amount of E1^E4 transcript two days post-infection. The data is plotted as relative infection at the different concentration with infection at 0 µg/ml of carrageenan set equal to one.