Viability and morphological changes of PANC-1 cells.
(A) Schematic of experimental design and timeline for combined treatments. Combo 1: CGA + TC-HT; Combo 2: CGA + LIPEF; Combo 3: TC-HT + LIPEF; Combo 4: CGA + TC-HT + LIPEF. (B) Cells were treated with CGA (100, 200, and 300 μM), TC-HT (10-cycles), and LIPEF (60 V/cm) alone, in double or triple combination for 24 h, and then cell viability was determined by MTT assay. (C) The viability of PANC-1 cells subjected to 200 μM CGA, 10-cycles TC-HT, and different intensities of LIPEF. (D) The viability of H6c7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay after triple treatment with 200 μM CGA, 10-cycles TC-HT, and different intensities of LIPEF. (E) Representative images of morphological changes of PANC-1 cells under the light microscope after treatment with CGA (200 μM), TC-HT (10-cycles), and LIPEF (60 V/cm) alone or in combination for 24 h. Scale bar = 100 μm Data are presented as mean ± S.D. in triplicate. (***p < 0.001 vs. untreated control).