Triple combination of CGA, TC-HT, and LIPEF induces PANC-1 cells apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway.
The apoptosis analysis for the PANC-1 cells following the treatment with CGA (200 μM), TC-HT (10-cycles), and LIPEF (60 V/cm) alone, in double or triple combination for 24 h. (A) Flow cytometric detection of the apoptosis with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. (B) Flow cytometric analysis of MMP using DiOC6(3) staining. The M1 regions indicate the cells with the loss of MMP. (C) The percentage of Annexin V-FITC positive cells. (D) The percentage of cells in M1 region. Data are presented as mean ± S.D. in triplicate. (***p < 0.001 vs. untreated control; ###p < 0.001 between indicated groups).