Timeline of the experimental procedure.
Calves (n = 20) were trained for the judgment bias tests and then tested over 2 days starting at 25 d of age. The latency to touch each of the 3 ambiguous locations was averaged. Calves were offered ad libitum access to a sweet solution for 6 h/d (from 16:00 to 22:00) in their home-pen and daily intakes were measured from 40 d to 49 d of age. Disbudding occurred on d 45 at 10:00.