The utility of coagulation activity for prediction of risk of mortality and cardiovascular events in guideline-treated myocardial infarction patients
Background: Despite improved treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), real-world patients still suffer substantial risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Little is known about coagulation activity shortly after MI and whether coagulation activity markers may identify patients at increased risk despite contemporary treatment.
Objective: To evaluate D-dimer concentration and thrombin generation potential shortly after discharge after MI and evaluate if these markers could predict the risk of future cardiovascular and bleeding events.
Methods: Unselected MI patients (n = 421) were included in the observational REBUS study (NCT01102933) and followed for two years. D-dimer concentrations, thrombin peak, and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were analyzed at inclusion (3–5 days after MI) and at early follow-up (after 2–3 weeks).
Results: Seventy-five patients (17.8%) experienced the composite endpoint (all-cause death, MI, congestive heart failure, or all-cause stroke), and 31 patients (7.4%) experienced a clinically relevant bleeding event. D-dimer concentrations at early follow-up were associated with the composite endpoint (HR [per SD increase] 1.51 [95% CI 1.22–1.87]) and with clinically relevant bleeding (HR [per SD increase] 1.80 [95% CI 1.32–2.44]). Thrombin generation potential was not significantly associated with either the composite endpoint or with clinically relevant bleeding. Higher thrombin peak and ETP at early follow-up were both inversely associated with stroke (HR [per SD increase] 0.50 [95% CI 0.30–0.81] and 0.43 [95% CI 0.22–0.83], respectively).
Conclusion: In unselected MI patients treated according to contemporary guidelines, D-dimer measurements may identify patients at increased risk of new cardiovascular and bleeding events. The inverse association of thrombin generation potential and risk of stroke has to be further investigated.