## Separation between calcium activity distributions from two biologically distinct populations as a function of sample size.

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The p-value obtained from a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between distributions of calcium activity traces processed by a given analysis method from stage 14 Xenopus neural progenitors and stage 22 Xenopus neural progenitors is used as a measure of separation between the two biologically distinct populations. A smaller p-value indicates a more confident separation between the distributions. Each point represents mean + SD of 5,000 comparisons between samples of a given size taken with replacement from the two distributions. Markovian Entropy is calculated with *n* = 2 and *k =* 1. A randomized control is included that compares two samples which both come from the stage 14 Xenopus population. The Cohen’s d values associated with this data can be found in S3 Fig.