Sensori-motor deficits following diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI).
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(A)–(C): Changes in behaviour from prior to treatment and up to 6 weeks post- treatment. In all panels the dotted line separates pre- (days −7 to −1) and post-surgery periods (days 1 to Week 6) for Sham (n = 12) and TBI (n = 19) groups. (A) Grip strength and motor co-ordination: Rotarod performance for each animal was expressed as a percentage of maximum pre-trauma rotarod score. This was averaged across all animals in Sham and TBI groups. (B) Balance and motor co-ordination: Beam-walking scores expressed as the average score for balance on the beam and ability to walk across it in Sham and TBI groups. (C) Manual dexterity: Adhesive tape removal latencies, expressed as average time in minutes to remove the first adhesive tape from the forepaws. (D)–(E): Effects of impact brain injury on whisker-based sensori-motor tests. Only post-treatment data were obtained for these tests in Sham (n = 4) and TBI (n = 4) groups. (D) Whisker-evoked forepaw placement. Correct forepaw placements (out of 10) averaged across left and right forepaws in Sham & TBI groups over 6 weeks post-trauma. (E) Whisker nuisance task scores. Total scores for Sham and TBI groups in the whisker position, response to stick presentation, and grooming components of whisker nuisance task. Scores were recorded from weeks 3 to 6. (F–H) Novel Object recognition Test (NORT), of learning and memory. The number of animals in the two groups was Sham n = 12 and TBI n = 19. (F) Distance travel during habituation period. Average distance (in centimetres) travelled. (G) Discrimination index of object exploration during learning period. Proportion of total time spent on exploring two identical objects (Obj 1 and 2). (H) Discrimination index on exploring familiar and novel objects during recall trial. Proportion of total time spent on exploring a familiar and novel object. * represents a significant difference of p<0.05. All values are mean ± SEM.