Schematic representations of the three markov chain structures considered in this study.
A: The four independent Markov Chains for each gate of the models Ten Tusscher and Panfilov  or Stewart et al.  considering only two possible states, Open (O) and Close (C) for each one. B: The original structure of the Markov Chain used by Mahajan et al.  to simulate the ICaL phenomenon. C: The proposed Markov Chain as a combination of the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism rates and the Mahajan et al.  topology, to replace the gates in the Ten Tusscher and Panfilov  and Stewart et al.  models. The MC transitions generated considering the HH gates d, f, and f2 are shown respectively in blue, green, and yellow. The calcium-dependent function f and the rates associated with the calcium concentration are shown in red. The set of parameters x used to fit both calcium-dependent rates (parameters x0 to x4) and voltage-dependence rates (parameters x5 to x10) are shown in black.