RANKL induces M cell differentiation in a dose and time dependent manner.
(A) Dose-dependent increases of SPIB and GP2 mRNA expression in 50, 100 and 200 ng/mL RANKL and ENRY treated monolayers assessed at day 5. (B) Time course of SPIB and GP2 peaked expression levels in monolayers treated with and without 200ng/mL RANKL. (C) Time decay of SPIB and GP2 expression among monolayers receiving 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of RANKL every other day from day 0, and assessed on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. All results normalized to GAPDH expression in human whole proximal small bowel or crypts, as indicated. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001.