Atrophy levels of the cortex and hippocampus. A) Representative 3-dimensional visualizations of brains reconstructed from contours of the ipsilateral (Ipsi) and contralateral (Contra) cortex and hippocampus between bregma levels -3.3 to -6.8 mm. B) Representative H&E plus Luxol fast blue-stained sections at bregma level -3.0 mm. Cortical atrophy was similar between TBI+Vehicle and TBI+AVL-3288 animals. Hippocampal atrophy was modestly reduced in TBI+AVL-3288 animals. Scale bar 1 mm. C) Quantification of atrophy of the ipsilateral parietal cortex. ***p<0.001 vs. Sham, two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test. D) Quantification of atrophy of the ipsilateral hippocampus. ***p<0.001 vs. Sham+Vehicle, Sham+AVL-3288, TBI+AVL-3288, two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test. Mean ± SEM, n = 10 Sham+Vehicle, n = 8 Sham+AVL-3288, n = 11 TBI+Vehicle, n = 11 TBI+AVL-3288.