Map of the study area and sampling sites.
(A) World map with India marked inside the red box. (B) Map of India with the Karnataka state and the Kadumane landscape marked. (C) The enlarged land-use land cover map of Kadumane. Red circles indicate sampling locations. The shapefile for the world was downloaded from DIVA-GIS (http://www.diva-gis.org/gdata) and the shapefile for India from Community Created Maps of India (http://projects.datameet.org/maps/). The land-use map of Kadumane was created by Nature Conservation Foundation. All layers are in WGS84 geographic coordinate system and were processed and plotted using QGIS3.10 (https://qgis.org/en/site/), an open-access software.