Leadership index (LI) differences at the end of training (average within the last training epoch).
(a) ΔLI at VP1 is calculated as the difference between LI21 and LI11. (b) ΔLI at VP2 is calculated as the difference between LI12 and LI22. Error bars denote the standard error (SE). (c) ΔLI at VP1 and VP2, for each dyad in all three groups, compared with model predictions. The large dots denote the No partner (green) and the Nash (violet) model predictions. The plots indicate the population means. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001).