Ketamine-induced cell death is counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation.

NSCs were plated as single cells. Cells were incubated with 400 μM ketamine and PACAP (100 nM) or agonist for PAC-1; Max-4 (30 nM). After 24 hour incubation, intracellular ATP levels were measured for cell viability. Data are shown as mean ±SEM (n = 13–39). Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn’s test was used. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. * denotes P<0.05 compared with control, # denotes P<0.05 compared to 400 μM ketamine.