Influence of social experiences in nymphs on their adult behaviour.
(A) Schema of culture conditions: 30 male nymphs were housed either without adults (light blue) from hatching until the last nymphal stage, or with 10 adult males (blue) or 10 adult females (red) from the 4th to the last nymphal stage. (B) Bars giving the mean (± 95% CI) number of attacks experienced per nymph per hour for 10 x 1 h sessions, from either other nymphs in the pure nymph culture (light blue, number divided by 3 to adjust for the larger number of nymphs in the cage), or adult males (dark blue) or adult females (red) in the mixed cultures. (C) Bars giving the distance moved (left) and mean velocity (right) of walking bouts during 5 min (means ± 95% CI, N = 20 per group) for LTI mature adult males taken >14 days previous as last stage nymphs from the pure nymph colony (light blue) and LTI adults from the mixed nymph-adult male colony (blue). (D) As for C, but giving the level (left) and duration (right) of fights between pairs of crickets from the two groups (circles: median, boxes: interquartile range, whiskers: 10th and 90th percentiles). Significant differences are indicated (B and C: Student’s unpaired t-test: *** p < 0.0005 for B after Bonferroni correction due to two comparisons; p < 0.001 for C. D: Mann-Whitney U test: * p < 0.05).