Simplified representation of the genetic nurturing design. In this design one needs genotypes of parents and offspring, and a measured trait in the offspring generation only. The trait in the parents, for example educational attainment, is unobserved and indexed by a polygenic score of, in this example, educational attainment. The child receives half of the genotypes of father (top left) and mother (top right) and these transmitted alleles influence the child trait directly. The parental alleles that the child does not receive can still influence the child trait indirectly, via genetically influenced behaviors in the parents (denoted by the dotted genetic-nurturing paths). Genetic nurturing is present if the polygenic score of the untransmitted alleles explains a significant proportion of the variance in the child trait. The proportion of variance explained by the polygenic score of the transmitted alleles include both genetic nurturing and direct effects. Note that ‘child’ can refer to child or adult offspring. T = transmitted; NT = not transmitted. Figure adapted from Kong et al. (2018).