Forest plot of the comparison of change in AA.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 0.01% atropine alone and in combination with orthokeratology for myopia control using a meta-analysis.
PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched. We included eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and retrospective cohort studies, published up to August 1, 2022. We calculated the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for all outcomes and plotted them in forest plots.
Fourteen studies were included; 4 and 11 in the 0.01% atropine monotherapy and atropine-orthokeratology (AOK) groups, respectively. Compared with orthokeratology (OK) alone, 0.01% atropine alone had similar effects on slowing the axial elongation (WMD: −0.00 mm; 95% CI: −0.05–0.04, p<0.31), while AOK significantly lowered axial growth. Moreover, the baseline myopic degree and duration of treatment were influential for the change in axial elongation (WMD: −0.12 mm; 95% CI: −0.17–−0.07, p = 0.00001 and WMD: −0.11 mm; 95% CI: −0.15–−0.108, p<0.00001, respectively). Additionally, the AOK may reduce the change rate of the spherical equivalent refraction and the accommodation amplitude (WMD: −0.13 D; 95% CI: 0.07–0.19, p<0.001 and WMD: −1.08 mm; 95% CI: −1.73–−0.43, p<0.0001, respectively), and cause a slight increase in the diameter of the pupil (WMD: 0.56 mm; 95% CI: 0.43–0.70, p = 0.007). No significant differences in the uncorrected distant visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, tear film break-up time, lipid layer thickness, and corneal endothelial cell density were found between the OK and AOK groups.
In slowing the axial elongation, 0.01% atropine alone and OK alone have similar effects, while AOK is more effective than OK alone in slowing down the axial elongation. Furthermore, the baseline degree of myopia and treatment duration may affect changes in axial elongation.