Experimental procedure and results of Experiment 1.
Participants performed Reaching-distance and Comfort-distance tasks in the Active and Passive approach conditions (A). Participants were told to stop a confederate (Passive condition) or themselves (Active condition) when they could either reach the confederate, in the Reaching-distance, or feel comfortable with their interpersonal distance, in the Comfort-distance task. The graph (B) shows the average group distance (in cm) as a function of task, condition, and session. Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Asterisks indicate significant differences in Reaching-distance before (PRE, dark grey) and after (POST, light grey) tool-use (two-tailed t tests p ≤ .002).