Effects of herb extracts in DD.
A summary of seven herb extracts for their effects on sleep parameters. Drugs were presented in food three days before and during the recordings. (A) Changes in total sleep time. P. notoginseng and W. somnifera significantly increased total sleep. (B) Changes in mean sleep duration. F. multiflora and G. uralensis significantly increased mean sleep. (C) Changes in maximum sleep. F. multiflora and P. notoginseng prolonged the maximum sleep. (D) Changes in sleep frequency. Flies fed with M. officinalis or P. notoginseng had more sleep episodes. (E) Sleep latency. P. notoginseng and W. somnifera decreased sleep latency. (F) Changes in activity index. Except for M. officinalis and W. somnifera, all other drugs reduced activity index. The concentrations of all herb extracts were 1 mg/ml in food. Values for individual groups illustrate the changes in percentage from vehicle group after normalization. Error bars indicate SEM. N numbers: vehicle, N = 77; F. multiflora, N = 26; G. uralensis, N = 14; M. officinalis, N = 13; P. ginseng, N = 14; P. notoginseng, N = 28; P. vulgaris, N = 15; W. somnifera, N = 13. Statistical methods are the same as in Fig 4.