Effects of ATOR on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the NF-κB pathway in diabetic hearts.
(A). Total protein extracted from heart tissues was subjected to western blot analysis for caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. (B). Heart tissues were sectioned at 3–4 μm and the slides were processed for TUNEL staining to detect apoptotic cells (arrows represent TUNEL-positive cells). (C). Total protein was extracted from heart tissues and IKK/IκBα expression detected by western blotting. (D). Cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were extracted from heart tissues and nuclear translocation of NF-κB determined. (E). GSK-3β and PP2Ac phosphorylation was detected in total protein extracts from heart tissues. TUNEL assay images were obtained by microscopy with original magnification 400×.