Effect of lactobacilli peptidoglycans on the respiratory innate immune response to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in malnourished mice.
Immunocompromised-malnourished mice were replete for 7 days with a balanced conventional diet (BCD) or BCD supplemented with peptidoglycans from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (BCD+PG05), L. plantarum CRL1506 (BCD+PG06) or L. rhamnosus CRL534 (BCD+PG534), and then challenged with S. pneumoniae. The respiratory innate immune response was studied two days after the pneumococcal challenge. (A) Number of broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL) leukocytes. (B) Number of BAL macrophages. (C) Number of BAL neutrophils. (D) Number of lung macrophages (CD11c+F480+MHCII+). (E) Number of lung neutrophils (CD45+Gr1+). Results represent data from three independent experiments. Results are expressed as mean ± SD. Asterisks represent statistical differences compared with BCD+PG05 group. * p < 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.001, ***/**** p ≤ 0.001.