Effect of carnosine concentration on myoblast proliferation using real-time cell impedance monitoring.
(A) Representative cell growth kinetic curves monitored by the xCELLigence system. After 48 h in growth medium, the cells were treated with carnosine (0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) for 92 h. Impedance measurements were recorded every 30 min and are expressed as normalized cell index (nCI). For each carnosine concentration, four wells (n = 4) were used. The rate of cell proliferative growth was determined by calculating the slope (1/hr) between 48 and 96 hours (B) and between 48 and 140 hours (C). Values correspond to the means ± SEM of n = 3 independent experiments. SEM between 48 and 96 hours = 0.004 (B), SEM between 48 and 140 hours = 0.002 (C). Each carnosine treatment was compared to the control (0 mM carnosine) using a Dunnett correction. *P≤0.05; **P≤0.01; ***P≤0.001.