Distinct effects of three different sleep deprivation (SD) protocols in Drosophila.
(A) Schematics for three SD protocols. Black and white bars indicate the lights-off and lights-on duration respectively. Triangle symbols indicate the delivery of mechanical or light stimuli, and dot lines represent the omitting stimuli. Ctrl (LD): Control Light-Dark Condition; DMS: Discontinuous Mechanical Stimulation; DLS: Discontinuous Light Stimulation; DD: Dark-Dark Stimulation. (B) Typical sleep profiles of manipulated (DMS, DLS, DD) and control (LD) flies. Male flies were used in this test. (C) Comparison of total sleep time between the control group and three different SD protocols in different time periods. (D) Comparison of sleep latency (latency to the first recording of sleep after lights off) between the control group and three different SD protocols. (E) Activity index affected by different SD protocols. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Tested fly N numbers: Left column, 48 for LD and 48 for DMS; middle column, 172 for LD and 156 for DLS; right column, 102 for LD and 105 for DD. Two-tailed, unpaired Student’s t-test was used. **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001; ****, p < 0.0001.