(a) Two players jointly control dyad dynamics (approximated as two mass-points connected by a spring). Each player has a separate sensory system which provides information about dyad state. The controller includes a state observer, a feedback controller and an estimate of the partner’s control action (partner model). (b) From left to right: Interaction force and minimum distance from VP1 (MD21) and VP2 (MD12), for all three H, VH and PV scenarios. (c) Leadership index for player 1 and player 2 at VP1 (left) and VP2 (right) for all three H, VH and PV scenarios.