Catastrophic expenditure due to surgical care.
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Depending on method of calculation and whether only direct medical or all direct costs are considered, between 7% and 32% of all interviewed patients had a catastrophic expenditure. Patients who underwent a procedure other than a cesarean section were more likely to undergo a catastrophic expenditure by either definition. When calculated as in 40% of yearly non-food expenses direct medical costs were different at p = 0.0001, and total direct costs p = 0.0001; when calculated as 10% of total yearly expenses, direct medical costs were different at p = 0.0002, and total direct costs p = 0.0034.