Cardiovascular response to progressive LBNP.
Effects of progressive LBNP (-10, -20 mmHg, then titrated to target SVFPleth, stroke volume measured by finger Plethysmography, of 80, 65–70 and 55–64% baseline SVFPleth, LBNP1-5 respectively) on mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), arterial pulse pressure (PP), stroke volume measured by trans-thoracic echo (SVTTE). Data presented as mean±SEM. p values indicated on each panel show probability of differences between groups, and differences in the pattern of changes, being due to chance (ANOVA). Changes over time were statistically significant (p <0.001) for each variable.