Boxplot of the distance between sample groups and the centroid of the chicken stool samples based on AMR gene pattern.
To demonstrate the comparison of the AMR gene pattern of each human sample to the chicken samples at baseline and follow up, we computed the distance between the Jaccard index of each sample to the centroid of all chicken samples. Here, a shorter distance indicates increased similarity in AMR gene pattern of the human sample in relation to the centroid of the chicken samples gene patterns, whereas a longer distance indicates decreased similarity in AMR gene pattern of that human sample compared to the chicken samples gene patterns. The chicken sample centroid is set at zero. The AMR gene pattern of the chicken samples is more similar to the AMR gene pattern in the control group rather than the intervention group (p = 0.014); note that chicken samples were obtained from the control group. Differences in AMR gene patterns over time did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.059), although at follow-up, the AMR gene patterns in both control and intervention group humans were more similar to AMR gene patterns in chicken samples.