Behavioral changes in Artemia salina during acute exposure to toxic dinoflagellates.
(A-B) Brine shrimps (%) actively swimming during exposure to dinoflagellate cells in exponential (A) and stationary (B) phase. (C-D) Brine shrimps (%) on the water column (in contrast to bottom position) during exposure to dinoflagellate cells in exponential (C) and stationary (D) phase. Different treatments are indicated by symbols: P. lima (•, full line), G. excentricus (○, dashed line), O. cf. ovata (▪, full line), and the chlorophyte Tetraselmis sp. (□, full line). The non-harmful chlorophyte used as control was kept and harvested in exponential phase for all the assays. Vertical bars: standard error considering four replicates.