pone.0282897.g003.tif (401.49 kB)
Adjusted prevalence (y-axes) estimates of resistance to antimicrobials (x-axes) in E. coli isolates (n = 1976) of turkeys by year, accounting for turkey farm level clustering.
figureposted on 2023-07-24, 17:21 authored by Rima D. Shrestha, Agnes Agunos, Sheryl P. Gow, Anne E. Deckert, Csaba Varga
The lines with error bars in each orange bar are 95% confidence intervals (number within brackets in the figure) of the estimated prevalence. NA: Streptomycin resistance was not included on the testing panel in 2020 and 2021.
year study periodprevious production cyclesescherichia coli div >< pclass ), cocanadian integrated programkg turkey biomasshighly important antimicrobialscanadian turkey producersantimicrobials previously eliminatedwestern region comparedstudy evaluated farmturkey flocks showedhuman medicine suggestamr data collectedantimicrobial stewardship programturkey sector ’manage antimicrobial resistanceantimicrobial resistance surveillanceamu reduction strategyturkey flocksmajor turkeystewardship initiativeevaluated periodicallyantimicrobial resistanceresistance determinantsmultidrug resistancehomologous antimicrobialsvarious stakeholdersunrelated classestotal amutake actionsignificantly lowersignificantly decreasedresistant organismsregional variationspotential carryovermultivariable mixedlevel amuenvironment interfacedesired impactantimicrobial useamu strategyamu quantity2021 compared