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Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Thrombectomy of Level IV Renal Cell Carcinoma without Cardiopulmonary Bypass

posted on 27.03.2019, 02:58 by Petar Zlatanovic, Igor Koncar, Nenad Jakovljevic, Dejan Markovic, Aleksandar Mitrovic, Lazar Davidovic

Abstract Advanced renal cell carcinoma accompanied by tumor thrombus in the venous system is present in up to 10% of cases. Extension of tumor thrombus above the diaphragm or into the right atrium represents level IV disease. Level IV tumors are typically treated with sterno-laparotomy approach with or without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and veno-venous bypass. In this case report, the surgical technique for the resection of advanced RCC were described, with the concomitant use of transesophageal echocardiography for thrombus extraction without the veno-venous or cardiopulmonary bypass.