Towards population screening for Cerebral Visual Impairment: Validity of the Five Questions and the CVI Questionnaire
Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is the most common cause of visual impairment in children in the developed world and appears to be more prevalent in children with additional support needs (ASN). There is an urgent need for routine screening for CVI, particularly in children with ASN, however, current screening questionnaires for CVI have limited validation. The aim of this study was to evaluate two screening tools: the Five Questions and the CVI Questionnaire. Additionally, the distribution of CVI across neurodevelopmental disorders is unknown. This too was investigated.
An online survey was completed by 535 parents. The survey was advertised via social media, CVI websites and parent email systems of four schools. The survey comprised of the Five Questions, the CVI Questionnaire and additional questions regarding the child’s diagnoses. Whether or not a child had a diagnosis of CVI and/or additional neurodevelopmental disorders was based on parental report.
Based on parent reports, both the screening tools accurately screened for CVI diagnoses in children. The Five Questions and the CVI Questionnaire have construct validity (as determined through factor analysis), high internal consistency (as determined by Cronbach’s alpha) and convergent validity (as determined by correlation analysis of the raw scores of each questionnaire). This study also highlights that among children with neurodevelopmental disorders, a large proportion have parent-reported CVI (23%-39%) and potential CVI (6.59–22.53%; as identified by the questionnaires).
The current study demonstrates that the Five Questions and CVI Questionnaire have good convergent validity, internal consistency and a reliable factor structure and may therefore be suitable as screening tools. The study also highlights that reported or potential CVI is evident in a large proportion of children with neurodevelopmental disorders.