The correlation between the abundance of exotic plants species and the distance from the pond, at York University's Pond.
Description: This experiment was a part of Campus-Ecology at York University. Undergraduate Ecology students obtained data in a pond-area and an impermeable area under a temperate climate, (roughly 20 degrees Celsius), cloudy skies with no direct exposure to natural light (sun), weather conditions were cloudy with high winds (60km/hr). The coordinates for latitude, longitude, and elevation for impermeable are as follows: LAT (43.768235) LONG (-79.50731) ELAV (137.67579). The coordinates for latitude, longitude, and elevation for the pond are as follows: LAT (43.770577) LONG (-79.50663) ELAV (151.32195).
Hypothesis: There is a negative correlation between number of exotic species and the distance from the pond.
Prediction: There is a negative correlation between the number of exotic plant species and the distance from the pond meaning that the closer you are to the pond; the more exotic species of plants you can see. This is because the closer towards the pond, the higher the quality of the soil. Biodiversity is also higher.
Person 1-Herbaceous Plants
In a pond-area two transects were placed in a straight line- end to end to cover 50 meters. A 1m x 1m quadrat was randomly tossed (roughly 1 metre away from the transect). Place the next quadrat on the other side of the transect 2 meters down from the last quadrat and continue to alternate (left, right). For every quadrat that was tossed, estimate the percent coverage of native, and exotic plant species. Finally, make a rough estimate of the total number of plant species within the quadrat. For areas that only have grass within the quadrat-count that as a 100% percentage of native plant species. Furthermore, when calculating total number of plant species takes a 10cm square area of the quadrat and estimate the number of blades of grass. Multiply that number by 10 to account for the total area of the quadrat. Repeat procedure in an impermeable area.
Person 2-Woody Plants
For the experiment that was conducted on October 18th 2016, the materials used were two transects that were 25 meters long. The transects were placed as straight as possible along a land that wasn’t leveled along a 50-meter distance. Every two meters on the transect on both sides 0.5 meters the following data were recorded: the abundance of woody plants and its canopy, the number of flowers and the vegetation ground coverage. In total there were 25 individual counts per data. For both pond and impermeable area, the same methods were used. Impermeable area is any place that nothing can enter and exit.
Person 3-Vertebrates & Invertebrates
2 Transacts were stacked one after each other in a straight line to cover a distance of 50 meters in the pond area. At the tip of the 50 meters line a radius of 50 meters was calculated. This was then followed by calculating the abundance of vertebrates and the number of different species was also counted. The abundance of humans within the 50 meters radius was counted also at the same time. 2 trials of counting the abundance of vertebrates and humans and the number of different vertebrate species was performed within a 15 minute time frame. A similar performance was performed to calculate the abundance of invertebrates observed. This time a 5 meter radius from 15 meters to 10 meters on the transact was taken and the abundance of invertebrates was calculated within the 5 meter radius circle. 2 trails were performed within a 15 minute time frame. A similar procedure was performed in the impermeable area. The only difference in the procedures was that the distance on the transact to calculate the abundance of invertebrates observed was from 9 meters to 4 meters.
The experiment was done at York university’s Pond and Impermeable area being the baseball diamond court on October, 18th, 2016 at 2:30pm. Two 25-meter transects were placed together to create a 50-meter long transect which was placed along a non- level land. The transect line was approximately a straight line. 6 pan traps filled with soup water were placed 3-meters apart starting at the beginning of the transect. There were three different colour pan traps; yellow, blue, and white. The plates were placed in order of color. The order that the cups were placed was blue, yellow and then white. This sequence of plates was repeated one more time with the same blue, yellow and white sequence giving us a total of 6 plates which were 3-meters apart on the transect. Using a net, the 50-meter transect line was sweeped and the number of abundance invertebrate sweeps were recorded. Every time a sweep was done, the abundance invertebrate pan traps was also recorded for all six pan traps. Every sweep was done approximately two minutes apart and pan traps were counted two minutes apart. The sweeping along the 50-meter transect was done ten times. The same experiment was repeated on a disturbed are.
Abundance of native plants – A numerical value (in percent) of native plant species within a quadrat. Native refers to flora that is historically and native to the region.
Abundance of exotic plants – A numerical value (in percent). Exotic refers to an invasive species that is introduced (intentionally or accidentally) to the region.
Total number of plant species- Is a discrete numerical number of total flower heads observed within a quadrat. A head would refer to the connecting stem that connects a bulb of flowers. In areas with only grass you estimate the number of grass blades within the quadrat.
Abundancy of woody plants: The total number of trees that were observed both sides in a 0.5-meter distance. For a tree to be considered a woody plant, it must be greater than 1.5 meters in height. This data is numerical discrete. Canopy cover: The canopy percentage was taken at arm’s length. The tree’s canopy was determined by making a square with hands that were approximately 15cm width and 8 cm length. The percentage was an estimation based on the amount of leaves in the square to the sky. In other words, when watching the square, the estimation was made based on the amount of light that was seen through the leafs. This data is numerical continuous. Total number of plants: Of all plant species were recorded. This data is numerical discrete. Vegetation percentage: the ratio between all plant species and grass species were estimated. This data is numerical continuous.
Gravel was considered to have zero vegetation ground cover.
Vertebrate: Vertebrates are species which have spinal cords, vertebrae and notochords.
Invertebrates: Invertebrates are species that don't possess a vertebral column.
Abundance of vertebrates: The total number of vertebrates species observed within the 50 meters radius circle, data is continuous.
Vertebrate Richness: The total number of different species observed within the 50 meters radius circle, data is continuous.
Abundance of humans: The total number of humans observed within the 50 meters radius circle, data is continuous.
Abundance of invertebrates observed: The total number of invertebrates observed within the 5 meters radius circle, data is continuous.
Abundance invertebrate pan traps: The total number of invertebrate individuals found in the 6 colored plates filled with soup water which was recorded every 2 minutes. This type of data is numerical discrete Abundance invertebrate sweeps: The total number of invertebrate individuals caught in the net sweeping along the 50-meter transect. This type of data is numerical discrete Pan traps: Plates filled with approximately 50ml soap water to trap insects. The colors were in order of blue, yellow and white.
Invertebrates: Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord.