Tattooed Human Mummies, List Version 4.0
The following presents a global data set identifying naturally- and deliberately preserved tattooed human remains from the archaeological record. The initial version of this list (Version 1.0) was compiled in 2016 for inclusion as Table 1 in the journal article “The World’s Oldest Tattoos” (Deter-Wolf et al. 2016). Benoît Robitaille, Lars Krutak, and Sébastien Galliot all contributed to that initial effort. Changes between versions are detailed below.
Entries in the data table are organized broadly by date, and rely on direct dating wherever possible. Where radiocarbon data is available, dates represent calibrated ranges. Each entry also includes documentation as to the associated archaeological culture, site, and significant source material. At the present time, unpublished and/or unprovenienced specimens from museums and private collections are not generally included in the data set.
Changes from Version 3.0 to 4.0 (2021):
-New entries for Andean and Hawai’ian examples
-Reorganized Andean entries to account for unprovenienced examples
-Collapsed single site entries except where dates differ
-Hyperlinks improved for source material
Changes from Version 2.0 to 3.0 (2019):
-New entries for additional Andean and Egyptian examples
-Added hyperlinks for source material
Changes from Version 1.0 to 2.0 (2017):
-Deleted “Loulan Beauty” from Gumugou, Qäwrighul, China, who is not tattooed
-Updated Egyptian data
-Improved citations and corrected date ranges as necessary
-New entries for Timbac Rockshelter and Andean examples