Sequence-structure relationships, expression profiles, and disease-associated mutations in the paralogs of phosphoglucomutase 1
The key metabolic enzyme phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) controls glucose homeostasis in most human cells. Four proteins related to PGM1, known as PGM2, PGM2L1, PGM3 and PGM5, and referred to herein as paralogs, are encoded in the human genome. Although all members of the same enzyme superfamily, these proteins have distinct substrate preferences and different functional roles. The recent association of PGM1 and PGM3 with inherited enzyme deficiencies prompts us to revisit sequence-structure and other relationships among the PGM1 paralogs, which are understudied despite their importance in human biology. Using currently available sequence, structure, and expression data, we investigated evolutionary relationships, tissue-specific expression profiles, and the amino acid preferences of key active site motifs. Phylogenetic analyses indicate both ancient and more recent divergence between the different enzyme sub-groups comprising the human paralogs. Tissue-specific protein and RNA expression profiles show widely varying patterns for each paralog, providing insight into function and disease pathology. Multiple sequence alignments confirm high conservation of key active site regions, but also reveal differences related to substrate specificity. In addition, we find that sequence variants of PGM2, PGM2L1, and PGM5 verified in the human population affect residues associated with disease-related mutants in PGM1 or PGM3. This suggests that inherited diseases related to dysfunction of these paralogs will likely occur in humans.