Sensitivity of forage turnip to the herbicide tepraloxydim
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ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the responses of Raphanus sativus to the application of the herbicide tepraloxydim by analyzing photosynthetic and biometric characteristics of the plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and treatments were instituted when the plants had five expanded leaves. The herbicide tepraloxydim was applied at doses of 0, 75, 100, and 125 g of active ingredient per hectare (g a.i. ha-1). The herbicide dose of 125 g a.i. ha-1 led to a small decrease in the photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, effective quantum yield of PSII, rate of electron transport, and the concentration of chloroplastidic pigments in the leaves of R. sativus. On the other hand, there was a small increase in CO2 concentration in the substomatal chamber. The number of branches, leaves, flowers, plant height and dry mass of the stem and flowers were reduced more prominently in response to herbicide doses than the photosynthetic characteristics. Therefore, treatment with tepraloxydim inhibits the growth and formation of the leaves, branches and flowers of R. sativus at the stage of development analyzed. However, doses of 75, and 100 g a.i. ha-1 neither compromise the photosynthetic apparatus nor the stability of cell membranes.