Regulation of DNA Replication Timing on Human Chromosome by a Cell-Type Specific DNA Binding Protein SATB1
Replication timing of metazoan DNA during S-phase may be determined by many factors including chromosome structures, nuclear positioning, patterns of histone modifications, and transcriptional activity. It may be determined by Mb-domain structures, termed as “replication domains”, and recent findings indicate that replication timing is under developmental and cell type-specific regulation.
We examined replication timing on the human 5q23/31 3.5-Mb segment in T cells and non-T cells. We used two independent methods to determine replication timing. One is quantification of nascent replicating DNA in cell cycle-fractionated stage-specific S phase populations. The other is FISH analyses of replication foci. Although the locations of early- and late-replicating domains were common between the two cell lines, the timing transition region (TTR) between early and late domains were offset by 200-kb. We show that Special AT-rich sequence Binding protein 1 (SATB1), specifically expressed in T-cells, binds to the early domain immediately adjacent to TTR and delays the replication timing of the TTR. Measurement of the chromosome copy number along the TTR during synchronized S phase suggests that the fork movement may be slowed down by SATB1.
Our results reveal a novel role of SATB1 in cell type-specific regulation of replication timing along the chromosome.