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Regulating Surface Termination for Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells with Greater Than 23% Efficiency

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posted on 16.11.2020, 06:05 by Fengzhu Li, Xiang Deng, Feng Qi, Zhen Li, Danjun Liu, Dong Shen, Minchao Qin, Shengfan Wu, Francis Lin, Sei-Hum Jang, Jie Zhang, Xinhui Lu, Dangyuan Lei, Chun-Sing Lee, Zonglong Zhu, Alex K.-Y. Jen
Passivating surface and bulk defects of perovskite films has been proven to be an effective way to minimize nonradiative recombination losses in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). The lattice interference and perturbation of atomic periodicity at the perovskite surfaces often significantly affect the material properties and device efficiencies. By tailoring the terminal groups on the perovskite surface and modifying the surface chemical environment, the defects can be reduced to enhance the photovoltaic performance and stability of derived PVSCs. Here, we report a rationally designed bifunctional molecule, piperazinium iodide (PI), containing both R2NH and R2NH2+ groups on the same six-membered ring, behaving both as an electron donor and an electron acceptor to react with different surface-terminating ends on perovskite films. The resulting perovskite films after defect passivation show released surface residual stress, suppressed nonradiative recombination loss, and more n-type characteristics for sufficient energy transfer. Consequently, charge recombination is significantly suppressed to result in a high open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 1.17 V and a reduced VOC loss of 0.33 V. A very high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 23.37% (with 22.75% certified) could be achieved, which is the highest value reported for inverted PVSCs. Our work reveals a very effective way of using rationally designed bifunctional molecules to simultaneously enhance the device performance and stability.