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Rational Design of Dimeric Lysine N‑Alkylamides as Potent and Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Agents

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posted on 23.03.2018, 00:00 by Youhong Niu, Minghui Wang, Yafei Cao, Alekhya Nimmagadda, Jianxing Hu, Yanfen Wu, Jianfeng Cai, Xin-Shan Ye
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to public health, and new antibacterial agents hence are in an urgent need to combat infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Utilizing dimerization strategy, we rationally designed and efficiently synthesized a new series of small molecule dimeric lysine alkylamides as mimics of AMPs. Evaluation of these mimics against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including MDR strains was performed, and a broad-spectrum and potent compound 3d was identified. This compound displayed high specificity toward bacteria over mammalian cell. Time–kill kinetics and mechanistic studies suggest that compound 3d quickly eliminated bacteria in a bactericidal mode by disrupting bacterial cell membrane. In addition, lead compound 3d could inhibit biofilm formation and did not develop drug resistance in S. aureus and E. coli over 14 passages. These results suggested that dimeric lysine nonylamide has immense potential as a new type of novel small molecular agent to combat antibiotic resistance.

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