Perspectives of intrauterine artificial insemination applicability in gilts
ABSTRACT: The application of the intrauterine artificial insemination (IUAI) technique allows optimization of a swine production system due to the reductions in volume and number of sperm cells in the insemination dose, and by reducing the time taken to perform the insemination. However, IUAI is not recommended for gilts due to the difficulty of intrauterine cannula passage through the cervix. This difficulty is associated mainly with the fact that the reproductive tract is smaller in gilts than in pluriparous females. However, few studies have evaluated the application of IUAI in gilts. In these studies, there are variations in approach concerning the definition of the success rate for cannula passage through the cervix, the type of cannula and the body characteristics of the gilts used, making it difficult to extrapolate the recommendation for the use of IUAI in gilts. Considering the evidence that such characteristics influence or even determine the success of the application of IUAI, there is a necessity for an understanding of the influence of these factors in the improvement and later application of the technique. Gilts represent about 15-20% of the breeding group, and the use of IUAI could optimize the processes of insemination on farms. The approach used in this review highlights the aspects that could aid in structuring further studies for improving IUAI in gilts, allowing its use on commercial farms.