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Optically Forged Diffraction-Unlimited Ripples in Graphene

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posted on 2018-10-11, 00:00 authored by Pekka Koskinen, Karoliina Karppinen, Pasi Myllyperkiö, Vesa-Matti Hiltunen, Andreas Johansson, Mika Pettersson
In nanofabrication, just as in any other craft, the scale of spatial details is limited by the dimensions of the tool at hand. For example, the smallest details of direct laser writing with far-field light are set by the diffraction limit, which is approximately half of the used wavelength. In this work, we overcome this universal assertion by optically forging graphene ripples that show features with dimensions unlimited by diffraction. Thin sheet elasticity simulations suggest that the scaled-down ripples originate from the interplay between substrate adhesion, in-plane strain, and circular symmetry. The optical forging technique thus offers an accurate way to modify and shape 2D materials and facilitates the creation of controllable nanostructures for plasmonics, resonators, and nano-optics.