Multiple recombination events between two cytochrome P450 loci contribute to global pyrethroid resistance in Helicoverpa armigera
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the most serious insect pest species to evolve resistance against many insecticides from different chemical classes. This species has evolved resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides across its native range and is becoming a truly global pest after establishing in South America and having been recently recorded in North America. A chimeric cytochrome P450 gene, CYP337B3, has been identified as a resistance mechanism for resistance to fenvalerate and cypermethrin. Here we show that this resistance mechanism is common around the world with at least eight different alleles. It is present in South America and has probably introgressed into its closely related native sibling species, Helicoverpa zea. The different alleles of CYP337B3 are likely to have arisen independently in different geographic locations from selection on existing diversity. The alleles found in Brazil are those most commonly found in Asia, suggesting a potential origin for the incursion of H. armigera into the Americas.