Macrophage subsets exhibit distinct E. coli-LPS tolerisable cytokines associated with the negative regulators, IRAK-M and Tollip
Macrophages (Mϕs) play a central role in mucosal immunity by pathogen sensing and instruction of adaptive immune responses. Prior challenge to endotoxin can render Mφs refractory to secondary exposure, suppressing the inflammatory response. Previous studies demonstrated a differential subset-specific sensitivity to endotoxin tolerance (ET), mediated by LPS from the oral pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG). The aim of this study was to investigate ET mechanisms associated with Mφ subsets responding to entropathogenic E. coli K12-LPS. M1- and M2-like Mφs were generated in vitro from the THP-1 cell line by differentiation with PMA and Vitamin D3, respectively. This study investigated ET mechanisms induced in M1 and M2 Mφ subsets, by measuring modulation of expression by RT-PCR, secretion of cytokines by sandwich ELISA, LPS receptor, TLR4, as well as endogenous TLR inhibitors, IRAK-M and Tollip by Western blotting. In contrast to PG-LPS tolerisation, E. coli K12-LPS induced ET failed to exhibit a subset-specific response with respect to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, whereas exhibited a differential response for IL-10 and IL-6. TNFα expression and secretion was significantly suppressed in both M1- and M2-like Mφs. IL-10 and IL-6, on the other hand, were suppressed in M1s and refractory to suppression in M2s. ET suppressed TLR4 mRNA, but not TLR4 protein, yet induced differential augmentation of the negative regulatory molecules, Tollip in M1 and IRAK-M in M2 Mφs. In conclusion, E. coli K12-LPS differentially tolerises Mφ subsets at the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines, associated with a subset-specific divergence in negative regulators and independent of TLR4 down-regulation.